Python SDK 快速入门

云眼About 13 min

Python SDK 快速入门

欢迎来到 云眼灰度发布 的 Python SDK 的快速入门指南。

按照本指南中的步骤创建灰度标帜、推出标帜传递,并使用简单的命令行应用程序运行 A/B 测试。

第一部分:创建示例应用

1. 获取免费帐户

需要一个 云眼 帐户才能遵循本指南。如果没有帐户,可以注册一个免费帐户open in new window。如果已有帐户,请导航到启用了标帜的项目。

2. 获取开发工具包密钥

要在云眼项目中查找开发工具包密钥,请执行以下操作:

  1. 转到“设置”>“主环境”。
  2. 复制并保存主环境的 SDK 密钥

📘 注意

每个环境都有自己的开发工具包密钥。

sdk_key.png

3. 复制示例代码

要试用 Python SDK,请执行以下操作:

  1. 创建一个空的项目目录。例如,在终端中运行:

Shell

mkdir eyeofcloud-python-quickstart

  1. 移入新目录:

Shell

cd eyeofcloud-python-quickstart

  1. 创建虚拟环境:

Shell

python -m venv VIRTUAL

  1. 激活虚拟环境:

Linux/macOS窗户

source VIRTUAL/bin/activate

source VIRTUAL\\Scripts\\activate.bat

  1. 安装 云眼 Python SDK。你可以用pipopen in new window轻松做到这一点。

Shell

pip install eyeofcloud-sdk

Python SDK 是开源的,可在 GitHubopen in new window 上使用。

  1. 将此代码示例复制到并替换<Your_SDK_Key>。 app.py

Python

import random
from eyeofcloud import eyeofcloud

eyeofcloud_client = eyeofcloud.Eyeofcloud(sdk_key="<YOUR_SDK_KEY>")

if not eyeofcloud_client.config_manager.get_config():
    raise Exception("Eyeofcloud client invalid. Verify in Settings>Environments that "
                    "you used the primary environment's SDK key")


on_flags = False

for _ in range(10):
    # --------------------------------
    # to get rapid demo results, generate random users.
    # Each user always sees the same variation unless you reconfigure the flag rule.
    # --------------------------------
    user_id = str(random.randrange(1000, 9999))
    # --------------------------------
    # Create hardcoded user & bucket user into a flag variation
    # --------------------------------
    user = eyeofcloud_client.create_user_context(user_id)
    # "product_sort" corresponds to a flag key in your Eyeofcloud project
    decision = user.decide("product_sort")

    if not decision.variation_key:
        print(f"decision error {', '.join(decision.reasons)}")

    sort_method = decision.variables["sort_method"]

    # --------------------------------
    # Mock what the users sees with print statements
    # (in production, use flag variables to implement feature configuration)
    # --------------------------------

    # always returns false until you enable a flag rule in your Eyeofcloud project
    if decision.enabled:
        on_flags = True
    print(
        f"\nFlag {'on' if decision.enabled else 'off'}. User number {user.user_id} saw flag variation: {decision.variation_key}"
        f" and got products sorted by: {sort_method} config variable as part of flag rule: {decision.rule_key}"
    )

project_id = eyeofcloud_client.config_manager.get_config().project_id

if not on_flags:
    print("Flag was off for everyone. Some reasons could include:")
    print("1. Your sample size of visitors was too small. Rerun, or increase the iterations in the FOR loop")
    print("2. By default you have 2 keys for 2 project environments (dev/prod). Verify in Settings>Environments "
            "that you used the right key for the environment where your flag is toggled to ON.")
    print(f"Check your key at https://app.eyeofcloud.com/v2/projects/{project_id}/settings/implementation")

📘 注意

不要运行你的应用,因为你仍然需要在云眼项目中设置标帜。

第二部分:运行应用

完成第一部分后,应用将不执行任何操作。需要在 云眼 项目中创建一个标帜和一个标帜规则才能启用该应用程序。

1. 创建灰度标帜

通过灰度标帜,可以控制在应用中看到新功能代码的用户。对于本快速入门,假设你正在推出一个重新设计的排序功能来显示产品。

在 云眼 中创建一个名为 product_sort 的标帜,并为其提供一个名为 sort_method 的变量:

  1. 转到标帜>创建标帜
  2. 将标帜键命名为_product_sort_,然后单击**“创建标帜**”,该标帜对应于示例应用中的标帜键。
  3. 转到默认变量,然后单击新建 (+)。
  4. 将变量类型设置为字符串
  5. 将变量命名_为 sort_method_,该名称对应于示例应用中的变量键。
  6. 将变量默认值设置为_字母顺序_,表示旧的排序方法。
create variable
variable_sort_method.png
  1. 单击右下角的保存以保存变量。
  2. 转到变体**,**然后点击默认的“开启”变体。变体是变量值集合的包装器。
  3. sort_method变量值设置为 popular_first,表示新的排序方法。
create variation
variation_popular.png
  1. 单击保存

2. 创建标帜传递规则

示例应用_仍然_不执行任何操作,因为需要在项目中创建并启用标帜规则。

为_product_sort_标帜的“开启”变体制定有针对性的投放规则。有针对性的交付允许逐步向用户发布灰度标帜,但可以灵活地在遇到错误时将其回滚。

  1. 验证您是否在主环境中(因为您使用的是主环境 SDK 密钥):
verify the environment in which you make the rule
verify_env.png
  1. 点击添加规则,然后选择定向投放
  2. 将流量滑块设置为 50%。这会将标帜传递给在此环境中触发标帜的每个人的 50%。可以随时将product_sort标帜推出或回滚到流量的百分比。
  3. 从“传递”下拉列表中,选择“打开”。
  4. 单击保存
configure a targeted delivery
Screenshot docs.png
  1. 为标帜规则启用标帜:
enable_flag.png

3. 运行示例应用

在终端中,对之前创建的示例应用运行以下命令:

Shell

python app.py

输出应类似于以下内容:

文本

Flag on. User number 6998 saw flag variation: on and got products sorted by: popular_first config variable as part of flag rule: targeted_delivery

Flag on. User number 1177 saw flag variation: on and got products sorted by: popular_first config variable as part of flag rule: targeted_delivery

Flag on. User number 9714 saw flag variation: on and got products sorted by: popular_first config variable as part of flag rule: targeted_delivery

Flag on. User number 4140 saw flag variation: on and got products sorted by: popular_first config variable as part of flag rule: targeted_delivery

Flag on. User number 4994 saw flag variation: on and got products sorted by: popular_first config variable as part of flag rule: targeted_delivery

Flag off. User number 8700 saw flag variation: off and got products sorted by: alphabetical config variable as part of flag rule: default-rollout-208-19963693913

Flag off. User number 9912 saw flag variation: off and got products sorted by: alphabetical config variable as part of flag rule: default-rollout-208-19963693913

Flag on. User number 6560 saw flag variation: on and got products sorted by: popular_first config variable as part of flag rule: targeted_delivery

Flag on. User number 9252 saw flag variation: on and got products sorted by: popular_first config variable as part of flag rule: targeted_delivery

Flag on. User number 6582 saw flag variation: on and got products sorted by: popular_first config variable as part of flag rule: targeted_delivery

📘 注意

在“开启”变体中,您不会获得恰好 50% 的用户流量,因为您正在与如此少量的访问者合作。此外,获得“关闭”标帜的用户没有进入您设置的 50% 流量,因此他们跌落到默认的“关闭”规则(前面的打印语句中的_默认推出_):

4. 工作原理

到目前为止,您:

  • 在 云眼 项目中创建了一个标帜、标帜变量和一个标帜变体(变量的包装器)
  • 使用 Decide 方法在应用中实现了标帜

示例应用中发生了什么?

工作原理:决定向用户显示标帜

SDK 的 Decision(决定)方法确定是显示还是隐藏特定用户的灰度标帜。

📘 注意

可以将此方法重用于不同的标帜规则,无论是向更多流量投放,还是运行实验以仅向部分用户展示不同的排序方法。

了解哪种排序方法最能提高销售额后,请将产品排序标帜推广到所有流量,并将该方法设置为最佳值。

在示例应用中:

Python

user = eyeofcloud_client.create_user_context(user_id)
# "product_sort" corresponds to the flag key you create in your Eyeofcloud project
decision = user.decide("product_sort")

📘 注意

(可选)在创建用户时包括属性(未显示在示例应用中),以便可以定位特定受众。例如:

Python

attributes = {"logged_in": True} user = eyeofcloud_client.create_user_context("user123", attributes)

工作原理:配置标帜变体

可以使用标帜变量动态配置标帜变体。在示例应用中:

Python

# always returns false until you enable a flag rule in your Eyeofcloud project
if decision.enabled:
    # "sort_method" corresponds to flag key you define in your Eyeofcloud project
    sort_method = decision.variables["sort_method"]
    print(f"sort_method {sort_method}")

对于product_sort标帜,可以配置具有不同sort_method值的变体,按热门产品、相关产品、推广产品等排序。可以随时在 云眼 项目中为 sort 方法设置不同的值。

第三部分:运行 A/B 测试

本教程将指导您完成目标投放,因为它是最简单的标帜规则。但是,在推出灰度标帜传递之前,你通常需要对用户_对_灰度标帜变体的反应进行 A/B 测试。

下表显示了标帜传递和 A/B 测试之间的差异:

目标投放规则

A/B 测试规则

可以将标帜推广到一定比例的一般用户群(或特定受众),或者在遇到错误时回滚。

在投资交付之前,通过 A/B 测试标帜进行实验,以便您知道要构建什么。跟踪用户在标帜变体中的行为,然后使用 云眼 统计引擎解释实验结果。

现在,A / B测试product_sort标帜的“on”变体。

1. 添加事件跟踪

需要将跟踪事件方法添加到示例应用,以便可以模拟用户事件,然后查看指标。

  1. 删除旧的示例代码,并粘贴以下代码。
  2. 请记得再次更换开发工具包密钥
  3. 不要运行应用程序,因为仍然需要在 云眼 项目中设置 A/B 测试。

Python

import random
import logging
import json
from eyeofcloud import eyeofcloud
from eyeofcloud.helpers import enums

eyeofcloud_client = eyeofcloud.Eyeofcloud(sdk_key="<YOUR_SDK_KEY>")

if not eyeofcloud_client.config_manager.get_config():
    raise Exception("Eyeofcloud client invalid. Verify in Settings>Environments that "
                    "you used the primary environment's SDK key")

"""
    --------------------------------
        OPTIONAL: Add a notification listener so you can integrate with third-party analytics platforms
    --------------------------------
def on_decision(decision_type, user_id, attributes, decision_info):
    # Add a DECISION Notification Listener for type FLAG
    if decision_type == 'flag':
        serialized_json_info = json.dumps(decision_info)
        print(f"Feature flag access related information:{serialized_json_info}")
        # Send data to analytics provider here


notification_id = eyeofcloud_client.notification_center.add_notification_listener(
    enums.NotificationTypes.DECISION, on_decision)
"""


# mock tracking a user event so you can see some experiment reports
def mock_user_event():
    answer = input(f"Pretend that user {user.user_id} made a purchase? y/n \n")
    if answer.lower() == 'y':
        # track a user event you defined in your Eyeofcloud project
        user.track_event("purchase")
        print(f"Eyeofcloud recorded a purchase in experiment results for user {user.user_id} ")
    else:
        print(f"Eyeofcloud didn't record a purchase in experiment results  for user {user.user_id}")


on_flags = False

for _ in range(5):
    # --------------------------------
    # to get rapid demo results, generate random users.
    # Each user always sees the same variation unless you reconfigure the flag rule.
    # --------------------------------
    user_id = str(random.randrange(1000, 9999))
    # --------------------------------
    # Create hardcoded user & bucket user into a flag variation
    # --------------------------------
    user = eyeofcloud_client.create_user_context(user_id)
    # "product_sort" corresponds to a flag key in your Eyeofcloud project
    decision = user.decide("product_sort")

    if not decision.variation_key:
        print(f"decision error {', '.join(decision.reasons)}")

    sort_method = decision.variables["sort_method"]

    # --------------------------------
    # Mock what the users sees with print statements
    # (in production, use flag variables to implement feature configuration)
    # --------------------------------

    # always returns false until you enable a flag rule in your Eyeofcloud project
    if decision.enabled:
        on_flags = True
    print(
        f"\nFlag {'on' if decision.enabled else 'off'}. User number {user.user_id} saw flag variation: {decision.variation_key}"
        f" and got products sorted by: {sort_method} config variable as part of flag rule: {decision.rule_key}"
    )
    mock_user_event()

project_id = eyeofcloud_client.config_manager.get_config().project_id

if not on_flags:
    print("Flag was off for everyone. Some reasons could include:")
    print("1. Your sample size of visitors was too small. Rerun, or increase the iterations in the FOR loop")
    print("2. By default you have 2 keys for 2 project environments (dev/prod). Verify in Settings>Environments "
            "that you used the right key for the environment where your flag is toggled to ON.")
    print(f"Check your key at https://app.eyeofcloud.com/v2/projects/{project_id}/settings/implementation")
else:
    print("\nDone with your mocked A/B test.")
    print(f"Check out your report at https://app.eyeofcloud.com/v2/projects/{project_id}/reports")
    print("Be sure to select the environment that corresponds to your SDK key")

2. 暂停免费帐户中的其他规则

如果你有免费帐户,则需要在保存 A/B 测试之前暂停之前在本快速入门中创建的目标交付:

  1. 选择包含您计划暂停的目标投放的特定标帜
  1. 选择要暂停的环境目标投放
  2. 单击右上角的禁用规则按钮。

3. 创建 A/B 测试

要在云眼项目中创建和启动实验,请执行以下操作:

  1. 转到旗帜的规则。
  2. 单击“> A/B 测试添加规则”。
create new A/B test
add-ab-test.png

4. 添加事件

在实验中,将跟踪用户的相关操作,以衡量用户对灰度标帜变体的反应。需要定义要跟踪的操作:

  1. 单击**“指标**”字段。
  2. 点击创建新活动
create_new_event.png
  1. 对于事件密钥,输入_购买_并单击创建事件。(您想知道新的排序标帜是否帮助客户确定要购买什么,因此请跟踪用户在新订单中显示产品后是否进行了购买。
2021-03-24 12_27_01-product_sort_ Flags_ Rules_ Development_ Experiment - 云眼.png
  1. 保留默认值(衡量_唯一身份转化_次数_的增加_)。
2020-11-19_10_13_31-Window.png
  1. 点击添加指标
  2. 将默认的“关闭”变体保留为控件。选择您在上一步中配置的“开”变体:
save_ab_test.png
  1. 单击保存

📘 注意

您不限于两种变体;还可以创建具有多个变体的 A/B 测试。例如:

仔细检查标帜以确保它处于开启状态,以便实验可以运行:

flag_on.png

5. 运行 A/B 测试

在控制台中运行示例应用并回答命令行提示。输出类似于以下内容:

文本

Flag on. User number 1496 saw flag variation: on and got products sorted by: popular_first config variable as part of flag rule: experiment_1
Pretend that user 1496 made a purchase? y/n
n
Eyeofcloud didn't record a purchase in experiment results for user 1496


Flag off. User number 1194 saw flag variation: off and got products sorted by: alphabetical config variable as part of flag rule: experiment_1
Pretend that user 1194 made a purchase? y/n
y
Eyeofcloud recorded a purchase in experiment results for user 1194


Flag off. User number 5815 saw flag variation: off and got products sorted by: alphabetical config variable as part of flag rule: experiment_1
Pretend that user 5815 made a purchase? y/n
y
Eyeofcloud recorded a purchase in experiment results for user 5815


Flag on. User number 1248 saw flag variation: on and got products sorted by: popular_first config variable as part of flag rule: experiment_1
Pretend that user 1248 made a purchase? y/n
y
Eyeofcloud recorded a purchase in experiment results for user 1248


Flag off. User number 9580 saw flag variation: off and got products sorted by: alphabetical config variable as part of flag rule: experiment_1
Pretend that user 9580 made a purchase? y/n
n
Eyeofcloud didn't record a purchase in experiment results for user 9580


Done with your mocked A/B test.
Check out your report at  https://app.eyeofcloud.com/v2/projects/19957465438/reports
Be sure to select the environment that corresponds to your SDK key

6. 查看 A/B 测试结果

转到“报告”标签以查看实验结果。

choose_report.png

结果应如下所示:

experiment overview.png

📘 注意

  • 在拥有更多用户之前,开发者可能不会看到为标帜变体配置的确切用户流量百分比。
  • 开发者可能不会立即看到用户流量。刷新浏览器以刷新流量。
  • 在有大量访问者(大约 100,000 人)之前,实验结果不会告诉您获胜变体。

7. 工作原理

对于 A/B 测试,需要一种方法来告知 云眼 用户何时在应用中进行了购买,并将应用代码中的此事件映射到您在 云眼 中创建的特定事件。幸运的是,SDK有一种方法!使用 Track Event 方法并传入所创建事件的密钥 ()。在示例应用中:purchase

Python

# Track how users behave when they see a flag variation
# e.g., after your app processed a purchase, let Eyeofcloud know what happened:
user.track_event("purchased")

📘 注意

(可选)向事件添加标签以丰富事件(未显示在示例应用中)。还可以使用收入等备用标签键来跟踪定量结果。例如:

Python

tags = { "category": "shoes", "revenue": 6432 } user.track_event("purchase", tags)

目前仅实验规则支持事件跟踪,不支持投放规则。未来变体将支持跟踪交货。

无论哪种方式,在实现标帜时都应包括事件跟踪,因为它可以帮助与第三方分析平台集成,并且在创建 A/B 测试时提供灵活性。

结论

祝贺!您已成功设置并启动了第一个云眼灰度实验。虽然此示例侧重于优化销售,但 云眼 的实验平台可以支持一组开放式的实验用例。

请参阅我们完整的 Python SDK 文档,了解使用实验优化软件的更多方法。

Last update:
Contributors: “zhangweixue”,zhangweixue